The following is a chronological list of the heads of House of Crawford or Clan Chiefs (informal) up to the turn of the 20th Century. The line separators indicate a break from the standard father-first son ascendency. We have come across two other claims to the senior line falling outside this listing: one after 1700 from the Crawfords of Newfield, a Cadet of Auchenames, and another from Lochnorris from the 1500's. The first section below from Leofwine (1) down to Johannes or John (8) is the traditional account of the early lineage. There are other suggested lines as noted above. How Crawfordjohn fits into this scheme is unclear, but we have added a section (without numbering) to cover a consideration of it's relevance to the senior line.
Crawfords of that Ilk
1. Leofwine of Mercia, West Central England. It is likely that Leofwine lived in Northumbria, with his ancestors having been in Mercia before moving north.
2. Thorlongus of Ednam, Berwickshire, an Anglo-Dane who fled from Northumbria (possibly Roxburghshire), to the Merse in Scotland around 1098. He may have also had holdings Mercia. In the Domesday Book of 1079, Thor is listed as having been deprived of all his possessions as a result of the expulsion of Anglo-Saxon nobles from England. Thor appears to have fought with Malcolm III and the forces of the Danish King Sweyn II against William the Conqueror in protection of the Scottish border. That battle was lost, with Malcolm subsequently swearing fealty to William. Thorlongus is named in records of Kelso Abbey of donation documents as Overlord of the Barony of Crawford.
3. Swane Thorson of Swinton, Berwickshire (c 1139-1189).
4. Galfridus Swaneson de Crauford. Galfridus is named Lord of the Barony of Crawford by King Alexander I. Galfridus was the first to take the surname 'de Crauford'. This must have been after King David I took the Scottish throne (in 1128) for it was the bringing of Norman knights into Scotland with him when he came back from the English royal court to assume the throne that the custom was instituted in Scotland.
5. Hugh de Crauford (Barony). He had a brother Reginald, father of John and Gregan. The barony was divided, with what became the parish of Crawfordjohn given to Reginald. Reginald's son John inherited Crawfordjohn. According to legend, Gregan saved King David from the stag's charge circa 1123. Holyrood Abbey was built in 1124 in commemoration of the event, which the king (undoubtedly influenced by the church) ultimately attributed to divine intervention. Gregan became the progenitor of the Dalmagregan Craufords.
6. Dominus Galfridus de Crauford (Barony).
7. Reginald de Crauford. Galfridus' (6) younger son, Reginald (7), is considered the progenitor of the Loudoun Crawfords.
8. Sir Johannes (John) Crauford, d 1248 with no male heir. Upon his death the primary part of the Barony went to William (alt. David) Lindsay ending the title "of that Ilk." Another part went to Archibald Douglas who married Margaret, Johannes' oldest daughter.
Craufords of Crawfordjohn
x. Sir Reginald Crauford of Crawfordjohn. Whether the same or distinct from #7 is unclear. Circumstantial evidence suggests that he might have died on Crusade. His arms are described as a templar cross on a white field. This implies that he might have been a templar knight. The first half of the 12th century saw several small crusades to the Holy Land as well as the founding of the Knights Templar (in 1118). Reginald's widow was remarried to a Fleming knight, Baldwin of Bigger, who may have come in with the Normans that King David I brought back from England. Baldwin became a Scottish magnate. He was granted the lordship of Biggar and made Sheriff of the town of Lanark. He was one of the military co-commanders at the Battle of Renfrew in 1164. Baldwin had considerable landholdings within Lanarkshire.
xx. John of Crawfordjohn, described as 'stepson' of Baldwin de Bigger. Crawfordjohn was named for John. He took over the lands supposedly inherited from his father Reginald upon his majority. Some consider him the father (or at least an ancestor) of Sir Reginald (the 1st Crauford of Loudoun). The Crawfordjohn line intermarried with the Barclays. An heiress, Margaret Crauford, married Walter Barclay, transferring Crawfordjohn to the Barclays during five generations, after which the Barclay heiress Marjory married Malcolm Crauford, returning Crawfordjohn to Craufords. From written history it is not easy to determine which line was senior, Crawfordjohn or Loudoun, however, traditionally the Craufords have considered Loudoun the senior line. The break in the Crawfordjohn line from the Barclay marriage would have interrupted what seniority it had. It has also been suggested that Crawfordjohn may have remained in the hands of a younger brother of Sir Reginald (1st of Loudoun). In any case, the senior line is traced via Loudoun. Alex Maxwell Findlater is of the opinion that the earliest Crawford clearly identified by documentary evidence is John of Crawfordjohn. George Crawfurd's research four centuries earlier, however, presents a line reaching further back, and he ties the Crawford line to Thorlongus. George Crawfurd had evidently access to documents that are no longer in existence or at least not available for study today. He may also have depended on family reports as to genealogical lines, which can be inaccurate.
Crawfords of Loudon, Sheriffs of Ayr
There continues to be some confusion regarding the line at this point. Crawford tradition considers Sir Reginald (9), who married the heiress of Loudoun (daughter of James Lambinus), a descendant (some say a son, others a great-grandson) of John of Crawfordjohn (xx). Historical scholars also disagree as to whether the Reginalds (12) and (13) are the same man or two. A third contested issue is whether the Barns of Ayr episode in 1297 depicted by Blind Hary did in fact take place, including the hanging of Sir Reginald, the Sheriff of Ayr. Alternative options are possible. Nevertheless, the execution of Sir Reginald (13) in 1307 at Carlisle was consequent to his being taken prisoner in battle while leading a force in support of The Bruce; he was accompanied by Bruce's two youngest brothers, Alexander and Thomas. Speaking against both Reginald being the same person is that Sir Reginald (12) would have probably been too old (close to 70) to have been in battle in 1306/7. Sir Reginald is registered on Edward I's roll of 1291, but not the Ragman's Roll of 1296. On the other hand, another Crauford, listed as Ronald, is registered in the Ragman's Roll of 1296. We consider it improbable that the last Sir Reginald (or Ronald) Crauford of Loudoun (13) to have been the same as the previous (12). Likewise, an event as disturbing as the massacre of the Barns of Ayr was very plausible. Much violence did take place during the English invasion of Scotland during those years. Edward I's 'peace' was falling apart. The English in turn brutally harassed the countryside. Wallace destroyed castles all along Scotland's border with England, precisely for the purpose of denying the English refuge and access to supplies. The Battle of Stirling Bridge took place in September 1297.
9. Sir Reginald Crauford of Loudon, 1st Sheriff of Ayr (son/great grandson of John of Crawfordjohn).
10. Hugh Crauford of Loudon and Crosbie. Crawford tradition considers Hugh the 2nd Sheriff of Ayr, though currently no historical documentation is evident to support this claim.
11. Hugh Crauford of Loudon and Crosbie, possibly the 3rd Sheriff of Ayr (according to Crawford tradition), proponent of the strategy for the Scottish victory against the Norwegian vikings at the Battle of Largs (1263).
12. Sir Reginald Crawford of Loudon and Crosbie (son of 11), 4th Sheriff of Ayr, ostensibly (according to Blind Hary) murdered in 1297 for protecting William Wallace; his role as sheriff is documented. He was named Sheriff of Ayr in 1296 by Edward I of England. Sir Reginald is estimated then to have been around 60 years of age. A younger son Hugh seems to have inherited the estate of Crosbie.
13. Sir Reginald Crawford of Loudon, possibly the 5th Sheriff of Ayr (traditional claim, though lacking documentation), executed in the winter of 1306/7 in Carlisle for support of The Bruce and Scottish independence. He is estimated to have been around 40 at the time of his death. He was supposedly a first cousin to William Wallace, and likely of similar age (b c 1270). William Wallace is estimated to have been around 35 at the time of his death in 1305.
14. Hugh Crawford, of Crosbie (son of 12) b ~1263, d 1319.
Crawfords of Auchenames
15. Reginald, 1st Laird of Auchenames, b 1283, supposedly listed in Auchenames Charter of 1320 (no documentary evidence has survived), d 1358
16. Reginald, 2nd Laird of Auchenames
17. Thomas, 3rd Laird of Auchenames, m ...Galbraith, d 1401
18. Archibald, 4th Laird of Auchenames, b ~1389, m Margaret Douglas ~1425
19. Robert, 5th Laird of Auchenames, m Marion Houston, b ~1464, d Battle of Flodden in 9 SEP 1513
20. James, 6th Laird of Auchenames, m Lady Margaret Douglas
21. Thomas, 7th Laird of Auchenames, b ~1505, m Marion Montgomery, d 1541
22. John, 8th Laird of Auchenames, killed in the Battle of Pinkie in 1547, son of #20
23. William, 9th Laird of Auchenames, married Annabella, died without male heir, son of #20
24. Patrick, 10th Laird of Auchenames, son of #22, b ~1530, m ...Fraser
25. William, 11th Laird of Auchenames, b ~1560, m Margaret Houston ~1600
Crawfords of Auchenames & Crosbie
26. Patrick, 12th Laird of Auchenames, grandson of #24, b ~1580, m Jean Crawford 1606, heiress of the estate of Crosbie, reuniting the ancient Crawford estates of Auchenames and Crosbie (Corsbie)
27. William, 13th Laird of Auchenames, b ~1607, m Anna Lamont
28. Archibald, 14th Laird of Auchenames, b ~1639, m Margaret Porterfield ~1670, d 1696
29. William, 15th Laird of Auchenames, d w/o male heir before 1695
Crawfords of Auchenames & Drumsoy
30. Patrick Crawford of Drumsoy, 16th Laird of Auchenames, descended from #10, parents David & ...Gordon, m Jane ~1700, the daughter of #28 and heiress of Auchenames (via Entail of 1695. Crawfords of Newfield claim seniority
31. Patrick, 17th Laird of Auchenames, christened 2 November 1704 in Edinburgh Parish, Member of Parliament, m Elizabeth Middleton, d January 1778 in Ardrossan
32. John, 18th Laird of Auchenames, christened 17 January 1740 in Edinburgh Parish, Member of Parliament, d 1814 without male heir
33. John, 19th Laird of Auchenames, grandson of #30, m Sophia Marianna Churchill, d 1863
34. Edward Henry John, 20th Laird of Auchenames, b 9 December 1816, m Francis Molesworth, d 29 August 1881
35. Hugh Ronald George, 21st Laird of Auchenames, b 16 July 1873; sold all of his inherited estates in Scotland, moved to Calgary, Alberta, Canada in 1904, d 1942 - no known male heirs survived him; his grandson ("Freddy") died in an air plane crash as a crew member on a domestic training mission during WWII. Hugh's only daughter is known to have had as issue the above mentioned child and possibly a daughter. We have been unable to trace any descendants.