History of Scotland

(This page is under construction.)

Timeline of Scotland's Historical Events
(The aim of this page is to interlock the 3 aspects of history and how the House of Crawford had a part of that History. When completed there will be 3 timelines interlocked together to give the reader a robust understanding of the chronological events along that timeline. The first and underlying timeline has already been laid down. Interlocked into that will be the history of the Scottish monarchs and then into that, the House of Crawford historical information and the social and political standings that occurred)

Scotland consists of three distinct regions: the Highlands and Islands, a densely populated Central Belt, which includes the main cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, and the Southern Uplands bordering England. The Outer Hebrides and the Inner Hebrides island groups lie to the west, with the Orkney Islands and Shetland Isles to the north. Once part of Norway, Shetland is nearer to that country than to Edinburgh, and retains a Norse character. English is spoken everywhere, and Gaelic speakers make up around 1.3% of the population, mainly in the northwest and the Hebrides. The old language of the south, Scots, sometimes described as a dialect of English, still heavily influences the usage of Scottish everyday speech.
During the 19th century, Scotland became an industrial powerhouse, with mining, shipbuilding, heavy engineering and manufacturing supplying the needs of the expanding British Empire. These industries declined in the second half of the 20th century, and the modern Scottish economy was transformed with the discovery of North Sea oil deposits in 1966, and a rapid development of the service sector.

Politics: Scotland acquired its own parliament with devolved powers from the UK parliament in London following a 1997 referendum. Voters in 2014 opted to remain as part of the United Kingdom. although 45% favoured independence

Culture and identity: Scottish engineering and scientific know-how played a major part in Britain's industrialisation and overseas expansion.

Scotland's vistas are as as dramatic as it's history, colourful, unique and breath taking.


1st century

Timeline of Scotland's Historal Events

Year

Date

Event

84

 

Romans defeat Caledonians at the Battle of Mons Graupius.

2nd century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

122

 

Romans construct the Hadrian's Wall.

143

 

Romans construct the Antonine Wall.

163

 

Romans withdraw south to Trimontium and Hadrian's Wall.

3rd century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

300

 

The term Pict is first recorded in describing the federated tribes invaded by Constantius Chlorus.

4th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

397

 

Traditional date at which Saint Ninian establishes a Christian mission at Whithorn.

5th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

470

 

Votadini peoples form the kingdom of Gododdin in the region north of the River Tweed.

6th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

547

 

Angles capture the Northumbrian fortress at Bamburgh and found the kingdom of Bernicia.

563

 

Saint Columba founds a monastery at Iona and begins his mission to the northern Picts.

574

 

Áedán mac Gabráin begins reign over the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata.

575

 

Western Scotland is granted independence from the Irish Dalriada, after a convention at Drum Ceatt near Derry.

580

 

Riderch I of Alt Clut rules region later known as the kingdom of Strathclyde.

584

 

Bruide son of Maelchon dies.

7th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

604

 

Æthelfrith unites Bernicia and Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria.

638

 

Northumbrians capture Edinburgh from Gododdin.

680

 

Trumwine Bishop of Abercorn.

681

 

Bruide mac Bili, King of Fortriu, campaigns against Orkney

685

 

Pictish King Bruide mac Bili defeats Ecgfrith of Northumbria at the Battle of Dun Nechtain, halting the northern expansion of Northumbria.

693

 

Bruide mac Bili dies

697

 

Bruide mac Der-Ilei among the signatories of the Cáin Adomnáin.

8th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

717

 

Nechtan mac Der-Ilei expels Ionan clergy from Pictland and adopts Roman usages with the aid of Bishop Curetán; masons sent by Abbot Ceolfrid of Monkwearmouth-Jarrow Priory help build stone churches at Restenneth,Rosemarkie and elsewhere in eastern Scotland.

724

 

Drust and Nechtan mac Der-Ilei fight civil war (to 729)

732

 

Death of Nechtan mac Der-Ilei; Óengus mac Fergusa becomes King of the Picts.

735

 

Óengus mac Fergusa, King of the Picts, campaigns against Dál Riata, and seizes and burns the royal centre of Dunadd

736

 

Battle of Cnoc Coirpi between Fortriu and Dál Riata

741

 

Battle of Druimm Cathmail between Fortriu and Dál Riata; the "smiting of Dál Riata", in which Dál Riata is subdued by Óengus mac Fergusa

747

 

St Andrews founded by this time, death of Abbot Túathalán.

750

 

Picts defeated by Britons at the Battle of Catohic

756

 

Óengus mac Fergusa allied with the English of Northumbria attacks the Britons; the English army is destroyed

761

 

Death of Óengus mac Fergusa.

763

 

Battle takes place in Fortriu between Ciniod and Áed Find; result unknown.

778

 

Death of Áed Find, King of Dál Riata

794

 

Annals of Ulster report the "wasting" of "all the islands of Britain by gentiles [Vikings]"

9th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

802

 

Iona burned by Vikings

806

 

The monasteries under Iona are attacked by Vikings, killing 68 monks.

820

 

Death of Caustantín mac Fergusa

829

 

Abbot Diarmait, abbot of Iona, goes to Alba with relics of St Columba.

831

 

Diarmait of Iona goes to Ireland with relics of St Columba.

839

 

Eóganan mac Óengusa and his brother Bran killed in battle with Vikings, end of dominance of Fortriu.

843

 

Death of Kenneth mac Alpin, King of the Picts; "union of Picts and Scots" traditionally dated from his reign.

870

 

Alt Clut—Dumbarton Rock — captured by the Norse-Gael or Viking leaders Amlaíb Conung and Ímar after a six-month of siege

878

 

Kenneth mac Alpin's son Áed killed; Giric becomes king.

889

 

Death of Giric; Domnall mac Causantín, grandson of Kenneth, becomes king.

890

 

Exodus of the Strathclyde Britons to Gwynedd (in Wales)

10th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

900

 

Causantín mac Áeda succeeds Domnall mac Causantín.

937

 

Battle of Brunanburh English victory in 937 by the army of Æthelstan, King of England, and his brother Edmund over the combined armies of Olaf III Guthfrithson, the Norse-Gael King of Dublin, Constantine II, King of Scots, and Owen I, King of Strathclyde.

940

 

Saint Catroe of Metz leaves Scotland.

943

 

Causantín mac Áeda abdicates to become a culdee at St Andrews.

952

 

Death of Causantín mac Áeda.

954

 

Indulf captures Edinburgh from Northumbria.

11th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

1058

 

After defeating Mac Bethad and Lulach, Máel Coluim III is proclaimed king.

12th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

1124

 

David I becomes king and introduces the feudal system of landholding to much of Scotland.

1128

 

David I founds Holyrood Abbey at Edinburgh.

1136

 

Glasgow Cathedral (St Kentigern's, begun 1123) consecrated in the presence of David I.

1153

 

Somerled sacks Glasgow and its vicinity.

1156

 

Somerled defeats the Norse King of Mann and the Isles, establishing his own semi-independent rule as ri Innse Gall-King of the Hebrides.

1164

 

Somerled is defeated by Malcolm IV in the Battle of Renfrew.

1174

 

William I signs the Treaty of Falaise in which he swears allegiance to Henry II of England.

13th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

1234

 

Galloway's independent existence ends with the death of Alan, Lord of Galloway.

1237

 

Southern border of Scotland established in the Treaty of York.

1263

 

Scots defeat Norwegians at Largs.

1266

 

Norway cedes the Hebrides and Isle of Man to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth.

1292

 

Edward I of England intervenes in Scottish affairs and grants the Scottish throne to John Balliol.

1297

 

Andrew de Moravia and William Wallace lead the Scots to victory over England at Stirling Bridge.

14th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

1305

 

Wallace is executed in London.

1314

 

Robert the Bruce defeats the English at Bannockburn.

1320

 

Nobles assert Scottish independence in the Declaration of Arbroath.

1328

 

Treaty of Northampton. England recognises Scottish independence.

1329

 

Death of Robert the Bruce. His 5 year old son, David II succeeds him

1371

 

Robert II becomes first Stewart king.

15th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

1402

 

English defeat Scots in the Battle of Nesbit Moor and the Battle of Humbleton Hill.

1413

 

Foundation of the University of St Andrews.

1451

 

Establishment of the University of Glasgow.

1468

 

Denmark cedes Orkney and Shetland from Norway to Scotland.

1493

 

Lordship of the Isles abolished. In 1540 the title was reserved to the crown.

1495

 

Creation of the University of Aberdeen (King's College).

1496

 

Education Act of 1496 makes education compulsory for barons and wealthy landowners.

16th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

1513

 

James IV and thousands of Scots are killed at Flodden.

1532

 

Creation of the College of Justice and the Court of Session.

1542

 

Death of James V

1559

 

John Knox returns to Scotland from Geneva to promote Calvinism.

1560

 

Parliament legislates Protestant Reformation of the Church of Scotland.

1561

 

Mary, Queen of Scots returns from France.

1568

 

Mary, Queen of Scots flees to England following the defeat of her army at the Battle of Langside..

1579

 

James VI takes over government from his regent, James Douglas.

1582

 

Establishment of the University of Edinburgh by Royal Charter.

1587

 

Mary is beheaded by the order of Queen Elizabeth I of England.

1589

 

James VI marries Anne of Denmark in Oslo.

1592

 

James VI enacts the "Golden Act" recognising the power of Presbyterianism within the Scottish church.

17th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

1603

 

The Union of the Crowns: James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England.

1614

 

John Napier invents logarithms and publishes a book promoting their use in mathematics.

1618

 

James VI forces episcopacy on the Church of Scotland through the Five Articles of Perth.

1633

 

Education Act of 1633 ordains a school in every parish (partially successful).

1638

 

Scottish Covenanters rebel against Charles I.

1639

 

First Bishops' War

1640

 

Second Bishops' War

1642

 

First English Civil War (While it is known as an English Civil war it was in fact very much a British war) (to 1646)

1643

 

The Solemn League and Covenant promises Scots army to aid English parliamentarians against the king.

1648

 

Second English Civil War (to 1649)

1649

 

Third English Civil War (to 1651)

1650

 

Southern Scotland occupied by the English Commonwealth's New Model Army following Scottish defeats at the Battle of Dunbar 1650 and the Battle of Hamilton during the Third English Civil War

1651

3-Sep

Battle of Worcester was a victory for New Model Army over the last major Royalist field army. Most of the Royalist officers and men who fought at Worcester were Scottish. For the next ten years, apart from some mopping up operations and a few insurrections, (all of which were easily suppressed) there was not further military resistance to rule from London.

1654

5-May

Oliver Cromwell issued several a proclamation at the Mercat Cross in Edinburgh. Oliver Cromwell was the Protector of England Ireland and Scotland, that Scotland was united with the Commonwealth of England (Tender of Union) and there was a general pardon with some exceptions for the people of Scotland for any actions taken during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms (Cromwell's Act of Grace).

1660

14-May

The monarchy is restored in Scotland and Scotland resumes its status as a separate kingdom.

1661

May

Four men were executed for high treason for their actions against the Crown during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Archibald Campbell, 8th Earl of Argyll, James Guthrie, William Govan were all executed in May 1661 (the fourth Archibald Johnston, Lord Warriston fled abroad but returned to Scotland and was executed on 22 July 1663).

1661

6-Sep

The restoration of the Episcopacy was proclaimed by the Privy Council of Scotland.

1662

 

During the parliamentary session the Church of Scotland was restored as the national Church and all office-holders were required to renounced the Covenant.

1662

9-Sep

The Scottish parliament passed the Act of indemnity and oblivion. It was a general pardon for most types of crime that may have been committed by Scots, between 1 January 1637 and before 1 September 1660, during what the Act called "the late troubles" (the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Interregnum).

1679

 

James, Duke of Monmouth defeats Covenanters at the Battle of Bothwell Brig.

1689

 

Jacobite First Rising highlanders defeats army of William III at Killiecrankie, but are halted at Dunkeld.

 

 

The Claim of Right and the re-establishment of Presbyterianism.

1692

 

Massacre of Glencoe.

1695

 

The Bank of Scotland is created by Act of Parliament.

1696

 

Education Act of 1696 ordains a school in every parish (successful; act governs education until the 1872 act).

18th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

1707

 

The Union of the Parliaments: the Acts of Union are passed by both the Scottish and English parliaments.

1715

 

Jacobite rising.

1745

 

Jacobite rising.

1746

 

The Battle of Culloden ends the last Jacobite rising.

1748

 

David Hume publishes An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding.

1754

 

Joseph Black discovers "fixed air" (carbon dioxide).

1762

 

Land tenure reform leads to the Highland Clearances and massive emigration for several decades.

1769

 

James Watt patents idea for separate condensing chamber in the Steam engine.

1776

 

Adam Smith publishes The Wealth of Nations.

19th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

1802

 

John Playfair publishes summary of James Hutton's theories of Geology.

1805

 

The Glasgow Herald newspaper first published.

1817

 

The Scotsman newspaper first published.

1820

 

The "Radical War".

1822

 

Visit of King George IV to Scotland organized by Sir Walter Scott.

1832

 

The Reform Act enlarges the franchise.

1843

 

The Disruption in the Church of Scotland (over the issue of patronage).

1846

 

Beginning of the ten-year Highland Potato Famine.

1847

 

The United Presbyterian Church of Scotland is established.

1864

 

James Clerk Maxwell presents equations describing electromagnetic fields.

1874

 

Patronage abolished in the Church of Scotland.

1878

 

Collapse of the City of Glasgow Bank

1879

 

William Ewart Gladstone conducts the Midlothian campaign as part of a political comeback.

 

 

The Tay Bridge Disaster.

1885

 

Creation of the Scottish Office and the post of Secretary for Scotland, later Secretary of State for Scotland.

1890

 

Opening of the Forth Railway Bridge.

1896

 

Opening of the Glasgow Subway.

20th century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

1929

 

The Church of Scotland and the United Free Church of Scotland unite.

1934

 

Scottish National Party founded.

1938

 

The Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938 is held at Bellahouston Park, Glasgow.

1941

 

The Clydebank Blitz (13–15 March).

1943

 

Creation of the North of Scotland Hydro-Electric Board to bring electricity to all parts of the Highlands and Islands.

1945

 

First Scottish Nationalist MP is elected.

1947

 

Nationalisation of the railways – the Scottish Region of British Railways is created.

 

 

The first Edinburgh International Festival is held.

1950

 

The Stone of Destiny is removed from Westminster Abbey.

1957

 

Scottish Television starts broadcasting.

1968

 

The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland permits the ordination of women as ministers.

1975

 

Local government reorganisation (replacing Counties and Burghs for administrative purposes with Regions and Districts).

1978

 

Launch of BBC Radio Scotland.

1979

 

Referendum to create a Scottish Assembly wins a majority but fails to win 40% of electorate. Act is therefore repealed without being put into effect.

1988

 

Terrorists blow up Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie with the loss of 270 lives, including 11 residents of the town.

1994

 

Local government reorganisation (replacing the Regions and Districts with single-tier councils).

1996

 

The Stone of Destiny is permanently returned to Scotland, to be housed in Edinburgh Castle.

1997

 

Newly elected Labour UK Government under the leadership of Scots-born Prime Minister Tony Blair legislates for a referendum on a devolved Scottish Parliament which is passed by a large majority.

1999

 

A Scottish Parliament sits for the first time in 272 years. Donald Dewar of the Scottish Labour Party elected as First Minister and forms Scottish Executive in coalition with the Scottish Liberal Democrats.

21st century

 

 

Year

Date

Event

2004

9-Oct

Opening of the new Scottish Parliament Building.

2007

 

The Scottish National Party become the largest party in the Scottish Parliament and forms a minority government.

2011

 

The Scottish National Party under Alex Salmond gain an overall majority of the Scottish Parliament.

2012

 

Rangers FC enters liquidation process after 140 years of history

2013

 

The Church of Scotland's ruling General Assembly votes to allow actively gay men and women to become ministers.

2014

18-Sep

Scotland has a referendum on national independence. Result is to remain part of the UK, by 55% to 45%.

2015

8-May

The Scottish National Party wins 50% of the popular vote in the UK General Election, securing 56 out of the 59 seats in Scotland.